Thursday, April 28, 2016



            This research paper discusses how fraternity men’s masculinity combined with excessive amounts of alcohol lead to a multitude of problems.  Such problems include sexual and physical violence, over-the-top hazing events, injuries, and death.  Binge drinking occurs on campuses all over the country and is on the rise substantially among Greek organizations.  Binge drinking occurs when a male drink five beverages and women drink four beverages in a short period of time.  Fraternity men consume much more than that on a nightly basis because they feel the need to try and prove how manly they actually are.  When intoxicated, it is like second nature for these men to act like they are on top of the food chain.  To curb this phenomena, we must begin to find more effective solutions.  Solutions could be anywhere from new forms of masculinity counseling to positive masculine growth.  The only way for these men to receive help is by letting others in, something that they really are not familiar with.  This is why we must make conscious efforts that help men give in to counseling and help.


Works Cited
Engstrom, Craig L. "“Yes …, But I Was Drunk”: Alcohol References And The (Re)Production Of     Masculinity On A College Campus." Communication Quarterly 60.3 (2012): 403-423.      Communication & Mass Media Complete. Web. 28 Apr. 2016.

Iwamoto, Derek Kenji, et al. "“Man-Ing” Up And Getting Drunk: The Role Of Masculine Norms, Alcohol Intoxication And Alcohol-Related Problems Among College Men." Addictive    Behaviors 36.(2011): 906-911. ScienceDirect. Web. 28 Apr. 2016.

Kimmel, Michael S. Guyland: The Perilous World Where Boys Become Men. New York: Harper, 2008. Print.

McKee, Shane Patrick. "Mantalk: Fraternity Men and Masculinity." ProQuest LLC (2013). ERIC.    Web. 28 Apr. 2016.

Peralta, RL. "College Alcohol Use And The Embodiment Of Hegemonic Masculinity Among         European American Men." Sex Roles 56.11-12 (n.d.): 741-756. Social Sciences Citation        Index. Web. 28 Apr. 2016.

Ragsdale, Kathleen, et al. "'Liquor Before Beer, You're In The Clear': Binge Drinking And Other   Risk Behaviours Among Fraternity/Sorority Members And Their Non-Greek Peers."        Journal Of Substance Use 17.4 (2012): 323-339 17p. CINAHL with Full Text. Web. 28 Apr.             2016.

Sasso, Pietro A. "An Examination of Alcohol Expectations and Social Desirability in Fraternity     Members on American College Campuses." ProQuest LLC (2012). ERIC. Web. 28 Apr.      2016.

Sasso, Pietro A. "Towards A Typology Of Fraternity/Sorority Programs: A Content Analysis."       Oracle: The Research Journal Of The Association Of Fraternity/Sorority Advisors 7.1    (2012): 22-42. Academic Search Premier. Web. 28 Apr. 2016.

Syrett, Nicholas L. The Company He Keeps. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press,          2009. Print.

West, Lois A. "Negotiating Masculinities In American Drinking Subcultures." Journal Of Men's    Studies: A Scholarly Journal About Men And Masculinities 9.3 (2001): 371-392. MLA        International Bibliography. Web. 28 Apr. 2016.

Monday, April 11, 2016

Literature Review 5

Ragsdale, Kathleen, et al. "'Liquor Before Beer, You're In The Clear': Binge Drinking And Other Risk Behaviours Among Fraternity/Sorority Members And Their Non-Greek Peers." Journal Of Substance Use 17.4 (2012): 323-339 17p.CINAHL with Full Text. Web. 11 Apr. 2016.

This study is about the types of people and the organizations they belong to when it comes to binge drinkers.  This study gives accurate statistics about they type of people that use alcohol more than others.

The author is Kathleen Ragsdale.  She is currently an associate research professor.  She received her Masters of Sociology at FIU and her Ph D at the university of Florida.  This being the case, I believe she is qualified to lead this type of study.

Risk Behaviors-a lifestyle activity that places a person at increased risk of suffering a particular condition, illness, or injury
Binge Drinking- excessive amounts of drinking in a short period of time

"...high-risk drinking such as binging (i.e. heavy episodic drinking) and frequent binging (i.e. frequent heavy episodic drinking) has increased and are especially prevalent among students who are members of Greek organizations" (Page 324).
 "For example, pledges may be required to drink alcohol, water, urine or putrid concoctions until they vomit or lose consciousness; perform intense calisthenics in extreme temperatures; submit to paddling (being struck on the buttocks with wooden paddles); submit to racial/sexualised verbal abuse; or view/engage in sexual acts"  (Page 325).

"When predicting the likelihood of the student engaging in physical fights, only gender is significant among the demographic variables such that males are over two times as likely to engage in physical fights as compared to females" (Page 333). 

This study will be able to help me explore my topic because it gives hard numbers and calculations pertaining to alcohol in greek members lives at college.  In the study, it shows that the most prevalent cases of binge drinking occur from men in fraternities.  This is basically the case that I have made, stating that men in fraternities use alcohol as a way to display their masculinity.  I finally will be given statistics to include in my project, which I think will help bring my idea full circle.

Research Blog 9

The main argument that my project deals with is the fact that alcohol makes fraternity men act with a new sense of manliness than ever before.  The idea of new/old masculinity is something that I also find very interesting and I believe I will be able to incorporate this idea into my paper.  As far as counter-argument goes, I honestly have not seen anything that shows that alcohol does not effect these males in a positive way.  The only counter-argument I can think of is not actually a counterargument, per se, but just a defense for fraternities.  This argument shows the positives that fraternities do.  Again, this is not a counter argument for my argument, just an argument to show that men in fraternities are not all that bad.

Tuesday, April 5, 2016

Research Blog 8

I do not think my topic has only one chief example to illustrate the frame.  There are countless numbers of examples that I will be able to use to show how alcohol helps or encourages men to try and achieve a sense of manliness.  One example that I found useful was the two instances at Dartmouth University.  The first case is when a bunch of fraternity members decided they wanted to beat up a kid just because they did not like him.  This led to them beating him to death.  On top of that, all of the fraternity members admitted they were intoxicated one way or another.  The other example is when Dartmouth first allowed women on campus.  New members (pledges) got drunk on their first night as pledges and stormed the dorms of the new women.  These pledges left letters with multiple forms of degradation and profanity.  These are just a few of the good examples that help support the masculinity theory.  Some details that might be useful to me would be actual statistics of, lets say, the amount of fraternity members that drink compared to non-fraternity members.  Also, the ratio of Greek to non-Greek members that drink or binge drink on the weekends.

Monday, March 28, 2016

Research Blog #7

The main theory that I will be looking at throughout my research paper is how fraternity members feel the need to use alcohol to help them achieve a sense of masculinity.  Once a male enters into a fraternity, it seems like they all of a sudden feel a sense of entitlement and a greater sense of manliness.  I will be studying why this is the case.  The academic source that I think will be most important to this study will be the book "Guyland."  I think this because it is an actual study of men traveling from adolescence to adulthood.  The author interviews males from their late teens until their mid thirties.  This give him a wide range of people to study which is a good thing.  I will be able to see what males from each age bracket think and how they act.  With all this being said, I am looking forward to diving into this study and analyzing everything that I can.

Research Blog #6

I think that this is a good visual representation of my project because it shows two fraternity members consuming alcohol and being rowdy.  This ties into the alcohol and masculinity aspect of my topic because it shows how these young men use alcohol as a way to show how much of a "man" they are.

Monday, March 21, 2016

Literature Review 4

McKee, Shane Patrick. "Mantalk: Fraternity Men and Masculinity." ProQuest LLC (2013). ERIC. Web. 21 Mar. 2016.

This dissertation is about a study made by the author.  In the study, he takes 15 fraternity members and uses them for a ten weeks.  These sessions are where "Mantalk" comes from.  The findings he comes across show that these "ManTalk" experiences allow the participants to became more aware of their masculinity and its intra-personal intersections (race, gender and sexual orientation, body image, feelings and emotions, and self-esteem and self-awareness) as well as its interpersonal intersections (relationships). 

The author of this dissertation is Shane Patrick McKee.  He wrote this while completing his doctoral degree at Washington State University.  There honestly is not much on the author, but considering he completed this study with the approval of the chairs, he seems to be very knowledgeable of the topic.

ManTalk- men's growth group that helps them explore their masculinity
Intra/Inter-personal relationships- communication within oneself/a strong, deep, or close association or acquaintance between two or more people that may range in duration from brief to enduring.

"Although men are not often viewed as an at-risk group and even naming them that way seems counter-intuitive, they have been overlooked as group in recent years even though they struggle in navigating the college experience in very similar ways as other such underrepresented cultural and ethnic minorities do" (Page 1).

"The social constructionist model relating to masculinities subscribes to the notion that man and his behaviors, values, and beliefs are a constantly changing collection of meanings that are constructed through his relationship with himself, with others, and his world" (Page 12).

"It is these early educational experiences combined with boys’ subscription to hegemonic masculine norms that can contribute to their underachievement in the classroom, lack of engagement in school, and struggles outside of the classroom involving violence, alcohol, and other risky behavior – as compared to their female counterparts" (Page 24).

This dissertation will be able to help me with my research because it talks about how fraternity men go through college without a real path for finding their masculinity.  I will be able to use much of the dissertation because the whole study fits well into my topic ideas.  I also think that it will be able to show the bigger picture when it comes to what it means to be a man.